Fifty-four years later, the 2011 revolution sounded the death knell for the dictatorship, putting an end to the “republican” tyranny of Zine El Abidine Ben Ali and ushering in a Second Republic. It did this first by opposing attempts at reform, then by organizing constituent elections to grant the state new legal foundations. Yet has this Second Republic become democratic by integrating citizens without discrimination into the decision-making process?

Throughout the decade of 2010-2020, voices have regularly implored the republic to reconnect with the slogans of dignity and work which, in addition to liberty, gave birth to the 2011 revolution. Such was the appeals of social movements that continued to expand; the pleas by disadvantaged regions and working-class neighborhoods which sporadically emerged; up to the uprising of the youths in January 2021. The republic, discreet or even oblivious until then, was thus summoned to renew its message, to gather its forces, and to rethink its project.