Articles published in this space do not necessarily reflect Nawaat's opinions.

As researchers and members of civil society from the Global South and the Global North, we are collectively taking a stand against the “Memorandum of Understanding on a Strategic and Comprehensive Partnership between the European Union (EU) and Tunisia”, signed on 16 July 2023, and against the EU’s border externalisation policies. We also oppose the various public statements targeting migrants made by Tunisian President Kaïs Saïed, the Ministry of the Interior, the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, and several members of the Assembly of the Representatives of the People (ARP) since February 2023.

While Tunisia’s alignment with EU border externalisation policies has long been documented, we denounce what we view today as marking a dangerous turning point in the endorsement of these policies and of the racist assumptions that underpin them. Tunisian authorities have been increasingly displaying their determination to maintain and strengthen a system of exclusion and exploitation of nationals of sub-Saharan African countries. Instead of condemning this racist escalation, based on the populist and conspiracy-infused discourses characterising the country’s current authoritarian drift, European representatives are instrumentalizing so-called irregular migration by presenting it as a “shared plague”. The EU is therefore opportunistically and irresponsibly backing the President’s stances and fueling anti-migrant and anti-Black hatred, while claiming to be helping Tunisia protect its own borders, rather than those of Europe.

We express our full solidarity with people on the move and reject all hate speech on both sides of the Mediterranean. As researchers and members of civil society working on these issues, we also wish to counteract the disinformation spread by certain politicians, journalists, and individuals posing as Tunisian academics, who forge racist arguments devoid of any factual basis. There is an urgent need to question the reasons why vulnerable populations are being used as scapegoats to mask the failures of public policy in Tunisia.

No, nationals of sub-Saharan African countries are not “plaguing” Tunisia

It was indeed the President’s speech of 21 February 2023, referring to “hordes of sub-Saharan migrants” threatening the country’s “demographic composition”, which triggered violent attacks targeting Black people, as well as widespread arbitrary arrests, sudden evictions and terminations of employment. While several embassies organised repatriation flights, many people fled via sea – the number of shipwrecks and of deaths and disappearances off the Tunisian coast increased dramatically during this period. A few hundred people are still holding a sit-in in front of the offices of the International Organisation for Migration (IOM) and the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) in Tunis, asking to be evacuated or resettled to safe countries.

In early July, these attacks escalated again in the city of Sfax following the killing of a Tunisian citizen which was attributed to a national of a sub-Saharan country, and which was preceded by the stabbing and death of a Beninese man. Against a backdrop of unabashed hate speech, Tunisian security forces intensified their raids in Sfax, deporting at least 1,200 sub-Saharan nationals to the borders with Libya and Algeria, in inaccessible and militarised desert zones. Having been abandoned there without water and food, and having often been violently abused, many of those forcibly deported shared distressing images and videos. These grave violations have been denied by the Ministry of the Interior. To date, at least 20 deaths have been confirmed by various sources – the actual number is likely to be far greater.

Behind the racialising categorisations of “sub-Saharan”, “African” or “irregular” migrants, are students, workers, refugees and asylum seekers, people who travelled to Tunisia for medical care, people who have been waiting years for their residence permits, as well as people who have been unable to leave the country to renew their visas. This diversity of backgrounds and statuses is rendered invisible, resulting in further marginalising and dehumanising people. Many foreign nationals in Tunisia are unable to regularise their stay due to an outdated and incoherent legal framework, and to slow and intricate administrative procedures. As is the case for many Tunisians in Europe, their mobility and residency are rendered irregular by laws and practices that classify nationals of the African continent as “desirable” and “undesirable”, and that criminalise a large segment of its youth. By contrast, the irregular stay of migrants from Western countries – which is rather widespread in Tunisia – is not viewed as a security problem.

In addition, there is no evidence to suggest that migrant workers are responsible for the deterioration of the Tunisian economy, as is instead claimed by the xenophobic discourses of certain authorities. Like many Tunisians, foreign workers are in fact often exploited and exposed to high levels of insecurity and food vulnerability. The current economic crisis in Tunisia is instead rooted in a lack of economic prospects, in the fallout of internationally-backed austerity policies and public debt management, and in the Tunisian state’s inability to address socio-economic inequalities.

No, the Memorandum with the EU does not protect Tunisian sovereignty

In his speeches, President Kaïs Saïed claims to defend Tunisia’s sovereignty, declaring that he refuses turning the country into a place of “resettlement” for migrants expelled from Europe. He also professes to reject letting Tunisia be a “country of transit or a place of settlement”, stating that it will not play the role of the EU’s border guard.

Nevertheless, his adhering to the Memorandum – in which the EU vouches to provide financial support to Tunisia for border management – shows that Tunisia will continue to endorse and integrate European policy objectives by fully committing to securing the EU’s borders. The President is thus maintaining the same course of action as his predecessors, and could go even further, since the agreement mentions a “system for identifying and returning irregular migrants already present in Tunisia to their countries of origin.” This would suggest the development of the “hotspot” approach, whereby migratory flows are managed at the EU’s external borders, in countries like Tunisia, preventing people on the move any access to the European continent. While the government claims to reject the settlement of sub-Saharan nationals in Tunisia, this course of action would in fact result in their confinement in the country.

No, neither Tunisian nor European populations will benefit from this Memorandum

In line with the migration agreements underwritten before and after the 2011 revolution between Tunisia, the EU, and different European countries, this Memorandum was signed in a non-transparent manner, without any prior consultation with members of parliament, trade unions or civil society. It neither includes any specific guarantees for the respect of fundamental rights, nor does it contain any monitoring provisions for the use of the financial and material aid allocated to Tunisian security forces.

The EU is thus effectively giving Tunisia a blank check, following a strategy that is all the more irresponsible given its inefficacy. As long as the structural socio-economic causes of so-called irregular migration are not tackled, and as long as access to mobility is not radically rethought, this security approach to border management will only make crossings more deadly and strengthen smugglers.

This Memorandum will further amplify the asymmetries in the access to mobility and opportunities between the EU and Tunisia, notably by contributing to what is termed the “brain drain”, and to the economic models that fuel the causes of migration and the widening of inequalities. In return, the incentives proposed by the EU, such as visa facilitations for “skilled partnerships”, have already been promised to Tunisia without ever actually materialising. The externalisation of Europe’s borders thus affects all those deemed “undesirable” by the EU: both Tunisians and other nationals of the African continent.

Furthermore, the Memorandum’s alleged desire to “preserve human life” is hardly credible given that nearly 27,000 people have died or have gone missing in the Mediterranean since 2014 due to EU and various member state policies of withdrawing from and criminalising rescue at sea.

The only way to truly uphold the interests and dignity of Tunisians and of all other people on the move present in the country is to establish a constructive dialogue with both Tunisian and non-Tunisian people affected by these policies, as well as with the various collectives and organisations representing them, with members of civil society, and with the research community. These exchanges should give rise to a collective reflection on political alternatives to the current murderous border regime, recognising migration as a right and as an asset for all.

1. Abbas Waed, Amnesty International, Palestine
2. Abbes Ahmed, research director at the CNRS, France
3. Abdallah Maha, researcher and human rights defender, Palestine
4. Abdelfattah Ahmad, human rights defender, Egypt
5. Abdelhamid Maha, Associate Researcher, CAREP, Founder of VFTN, France/Tunisia
6. Abdeljaoued Héla, medical doctor, civil society activist, Tunisia
7. Abdessamad Hichem, historian and translator, member of the Nachaz-Dissonances Association, Tunisia/France
8. Aboubakari Razakou, Afrique-Europe Interact (AEI) Togo Section, Togo
9. Abubakr Bayan, PhD student, Yale University, USA
10. Achelaritei Dorina, Mediterranea Berlin e.V., Germany
11. Afid Fatna, researcher in the sociology of migrations, Morocco
12. Agier Michel, director of studies, EHESS, France
13. Ahed Hala, lawyer and human rights defender, Jordan
14. Aïssa Lotfi, Professor of Higher Education, University of Tunis, Tunisia
15. Aissaoui Nadia Leïla, sociologist and feminist activist, France
16. Ait Messaoud Ismahan, PhD student and lecturer in women’s rights and gender justice, Algeria
17. Ak Firat, migration legal services operator, Italy
18. Akrimi Yasmine, PhD student in political science, Belgium/Tunisia
19. Al Majali Solenn, PhD student in anthropology, Jordan
20. al-Kashef Muhammad, Migreurop, Germany
21. Alaspli Ali, researcher, Libya
22. Alkan Hilal, researcher, Leibniz Zentrum Moderner Orient, Germany
23. Allal Tewfik, community activist of Algerian emigration in France, France
24. Alzein Ali, Bees and Refugees, UK
25. Amamou Hayet, University of Tunis, Tunisia
26. Amilhat Szary Anne-Laure, Professor, Grenoble Alpes University, France
27. Ammari Hassane, Association of Migrants in Vulnerable Situations, AMSV, Oujda, Morocco
28. Aousji Haifa, student, Tunisia
29. Araari Najet, researcher, Tunisia
30. Asseraf Arthur, University of Cambridge, UK
31. Awad Nada, Advocacy Coordinator, Switzerland
32. Aydi Mohamed Wajdi, Lawyer at the Court of Cassation, Expert in Local Governance and Migration, Sfax, Tunisia
33. Ayeb Habib, Emeritus Professor, Paris 8 University, founder of the Observatory for Food Sovereignty and the Environment, OSAE, film director, Tunisia
34. Azarova Valentina, Autonomous Center for Feminist Research, de:border//migration justice collective, Greece
35. Azua Alexandra, Lawyers for Justice in Libya, UK
36. Baggris Lisa, student, Sciences Po Bordeaux, France
37. Bahri Wafa, University of Colorado Denver, USA
38. Baladi Viviane, Research Director, CNRS, France
39. Balghouthi Mounira, researcher in philosophy, Tunisia
40. Ballarin Marie Pierre, Research Director, Research Institute for Development, France
41. Bargaoui Sami, La Manouba University, Sentiers-Massarib Association, Tunisia
42. Bedhioufi Hafsi, Lecturer, La Manouba University, Tunisia
43. Belgasmi Jihene, Amnesty International Tunisia, Tunisia,
44. Bellezza Sara, PhD student, Free University of Berlin, Germany
45. Bello Adamou Mahamadou, PhD student, Abdou Moumouni University of Niamey, Niger
46. Ben Amor Romdhane, FTDES-Tunisian Forum for Social and Economic Rights, Tunisia
47. Ben Arfa Slim, political and civic activist, Tunisia
48. Ben Ghazi Mohamed, Libya Crimes Watch, Libya
49. Ben Hadj Hassen Asma, PhD student, University of Bayreuth, Tunisia
50. Ben Haj Yahia Fathi, writer and translator, member of the Nachaz-Dissonances Association, Tunisia
51. Ben Ismail Rim, Higher Institute of Management of Tunis, Tunisia
52. Ben Jemia Monia, academic, Tunisia
53. Ben Jouira Asrar, President of the Association Intersection for Rights and Freedoms, Tunisia
54. Ben Mami Riadh Amine, PhD student, University of Aix-Marseille, Tunisia/France
55. Ben Said Rim, Data Scientist, Japan
56. Ben Said Sarra, Aswat Nissa Association, Tunisia
57. Ben Slama Raja, Professor in higher education, Tunisia
58. Ben Youssef Mohamed Slim, University of Lille, Tunisia
59. Benabdallah Fayçal, President of the FTCR-Federation of Tunisians for Citizenship of the Two Shores, France
60. Benarab Attou Malika, former MEP, France
61. Bendix Daniel, Professor, Friedensau Adventist University, Germany
62. Benhaïm Yohanan, researcher in residence in charge of contemporary studies, French Institute for Anatolian Studies IFEA, France/Turkey
63. Berrada Omar, writer and academic, Morocco
64. Bessis Sophie, historian, Tunisia/France
65. Billiet Juliette, University of Ghent, Belgium
66. Bisiaux Sophie-Anne, Migreurop, France
67. Bodini Daniela Cornelia, Partner at Todo Cambia, Italy
68. Bouattour Souad, ATFD-Tunisian Association of Democratic Women, Tunisia
69. Boubakri Hassen, CeTuMA, Tunisia
70. Bouchoucha Hanene, Nawazi Organization for Gender Studies, Libya
71. Bouden Hajer, translator, member of the Sentiers-Massarib Association, Tunisia
72. Bourugaa Ismahen, Advocacy Officer, Tunisia
73. Boyle Catey, PhD student, Harvard University, USA
74. Braude Richard, Arci Porco Rosso, Italy
75. Bresnu Xavier, Active in various Tunisian and international NGOs, Tunisia
76. Broué Michel, Emeritus Professor, Paris Cité University and Institut Universitaire de France, France
77. Cadat-Lampe Mellouki, Senior Researcher, Movisie, The Netherlands
78. Calame Claude, Director of Studies, EHESS, Paris, France
79. Campochiaro Riccardo, lawyer, Italy
80. Capelli Clara, economist, University of Bethlehem, Palestine
81. Capriata Marco, lawyer, ASGI, Italy
82. Carastathis Anna, Co-Director, Autonomous Center for Feminist Research, Greece
83. Carlier Julie, Ghent University, Ghent Center for Global Studies, Belgium
84. Carmassi Caterina, lawyer, Italy
85. Carrey-Conte Fanélie, General Secretary, La Cimade, France
86. Casier Marlies, Visiting Professor, University of Ghent, Belgium
87. Cassarino Jean-Pierre, College of Europe, Poland
88. Castro Neira Yerko, Ibero-American University, Mexico
89. Cavallo Delphine, design engineer, University of Aix-Marseille, France
90. Chadid Rula, Director, Sweden
91. Chairi Taoufik, Association ADAM, Tunisia
92. Chastanet Monique, historian, CNRS, France
93. Chebbi Hanen, University of Sfax, Tunisia
94. Chéhou Azizou, Coordinator, Alarm Phone Sahara, Agadez, Niger
95. Chennaoui Henda, sociology researcher and feminist activist, Tunisia
96. Cherbib Mouhieddine, Committee for the respect of freedoms and human rights in Tunisia CRLDHT, France
97. Chikhaoui Hazem, professor of philosophy, Tunisia
98. Chilliard Yves, retired research director, INRAE, France
99. Chitour Yacine, Professor, Paris-Saclay University, France
100. Chouicha Kaddour, teacher, academic, trade unionist and human rights activist, Algeria
101. Chouiter Sofiane, Justitia Center for the legal protection of human rights in Algeria, Canada
102. Colasanto Paola, lawyer, Italy
103. Constantinou Petros, KEERFA-United Movement Against Racism and the Fascist Threat, Greece
104. Córdova Edgar, anthropologist, CIESAS-Mexico, member of the MADAR network, Mexico
105. Correale Francesco, historian, CNRS Tours, France
106. Costa Santos Adriana, researcher, Saint-Louis University, Brussels, Belgium
107. Cuttitta Paolo, University of Genoa, Italy
108. Dahmani Ahmed, retired academic, Algeria
109. Dakhli Leïla, CNRS, France
110. Dakhlia Jocelyne, historian, EHESS, France
111. Daoud Dalal, University of Waterloo, Canada
112. Dayan-Herzbrun Sonia, Emeritus Professor, Paris Cité University, France
113. De Genova Nicholas, University of Houston, USA
114. De Ley Herman, Emeritus Professor, University of Ghent, Belgium
115. De Nicola Armando Maria, lawyer, ASGI, Italy
116. Del Biaggio Cristina, University Grenoble Alpes, France
117. Dental Monique, President and founder of the feminist network “Ruptures”, France
118. Dickins James, University of Leeds, UK
119. Direche Karima, Research Director, CNRS, France
120. Dişli Hüseyin, PhD student, University of Kent, Turkey/UK
121. Dridi Mohsen, community activist, France
122. Drissi Emna, Pacte solidaire des entreprises (Business Solidarity Pact), Tunisia
123. Dupont Victor, IREMAM, France
124. Eberl Hans-Georg, Afrique-Europe Interact, Vienna, Austria
125. Echchkkhi Imane, Alarmphone, Morocco
126. El Ayeb Meriam, activist, researcher in environmental law, Tunisia
127. El Fani Nadia, film director, France
128. El Fargi Amel, university teacher, Tunisia
129. El Hamel Chouki, Professor, Arizona State University, USA
130. El Hosseiny Salma, human rights defender and lawyer, Egypt
131. El Idrissi Nacer, President, Association of Maghreb Workers of France, France
132. Elleuch Mahdi, Legal Agenda-Tunisia, Tunisia
133. Elsayeh Mohamed, PhD student, France
134. Enclos Philippe, retired teacher-researcher, University of Lille, trade unionist, France
135. Fayman Sonia, independent sociologist, France
136. Fdhila Sahar, University of Sfax, Tunisia
137. Feltrin Lorenzo, Research Fellow, University of Birmingham, UK
138. Ferchichi Wahid, Professor of Law, University of Carthage, Tunisia
139. Ferraris Valeria, University of Turin, Italy
140. Ferreri Veronica, Marie Curie Fellow, Ca’ Foscari University, Venice, Italy
141. Fersaoui Abdelouhab, political activist, Algeria
142. Fetjani Chérif, Honorary Professor, Lyon 2 University, France
143. Fiore Ornella, lawyer, Turin, Italy
144. Fouad Mostafa, HuMENA for Human Rights and Civic Engagement, Belgium
145. Frawes Yosra, feminist and former president of the Tunisian Association of Democratic Women ATFD, Tunisia
146. Frigerio Michèle, researcher, CNRS, France
147. Frihi Dorra, Research Master’s student, Ca’ Foscari University of Venice and Paul-Valey Montpellier 3 University, Tunisia/Italy
148. Furri Filippo, Mimetis, France
149. Gad Nouran, PhD student, University of Aix-Marseille, France
150. Galai Ahmed, President of Solidarité Laïque-Méditerranée (Secular-Mediterranean Solidarity), Tunis, Tunisia
151. Gamez Selma Alejandro, Red Jurídica Law Firm, Spain
152. Gandolfi Paola, University of Bergamo, Italy
153. Garfi Reem, Mnemty Association, Tunisia
154. Garnaoui Wael, Lecturer-Researcher, Research Group Border Studies, University of Sousse, Tunisia
155. Garny Naïké, PhD student, KU Louvain, Belgium
156. Gauthero Jean-Luc, University of the Côte d’Azur, France
157. Geisser Vincent, President of the Center for Studies and Information on International Migration, France
158. Gerbaudo Marco, PhD student, Bocconi University, Italy
159. Giglioli Ilaria, University of San Francisco, USA
160. Giovannelli Stefano, Master’s student in law, Italy
161. Girr Katja, researcher, University of Bonn, Germany
162. Giusa Caterina, sociologist, University of Western Brittany, France
163. Giusti Martina, lawyer, Italy
164. Gomez Michael, New York University, USA
165. Gonzalez-Dogan Shyla, Arizona State University, USA
166. Gordon Neve, Queen Mary University of London, UK
167. Grangaud Isabelle, Research Director, CNRS, France
168. Grewal Sharan, Professor, William & Mary, USA
169. Grisoni Alessandra, sociologist, international cooperation, Italy
170. Gross-Wyrtzen Leslie, Lecturer, Yale University, USA
171. Grüneisl Katharina, University of Nottingham, UK
172. Guéhiss Zeineb, feminist and civil society activist, Tunisia
173. Guessoumi Mouldi, sociologist, professor and researcher, University of Tunis, Tunisia
174. Guezmir Asma, Lecturer, University of Tunis, Tunisia
175. Guien Jeanne, independent researcher, France
176. Haider Huda, P2P Purchase Tui, Tunisia
177. Hajaji Ahlem, La Manouba University, Tunisia
178. Hamdoun Salah, PhD Candidate, Arizona State University, USA
179. Hammami Mohamed-Dhia, PhD student, Syracuse University, USA
180. Hammami Cyrine, Association for the Promotion of the Right to Difference, Tunisia
181. Hammouda Naoufel, Association for the Protection of the Wetlands of Southern Tunisia, Tunisia
182. Hammouri Shahd, Lecturer in Law, University of Kent, UK
183. Hamoud Maher, University of Leuven KUL, Belgium
184. Hamtoun Abdulsalam, Libya Constitution Drafting Assembly, Libya
185. Hamza Nabila, sociologist, Tunisia
186. Hanin Maher, researcher, FTDES-Tunisian Forum for Social and Economic Rights, Tunisia
187. Hassam Fouad, human rights defender, LADDH-Algerian League for the Defence of Human Rights, Algeria
188. Hayat Samuel, researcher, CNRS, Sciences Po, France
189. Hedhili Abderrahmane, President of the FTDES-Tunisian Forum for Social and Economic Rights, Tunisia
190. Hegasy Sonja, ZMO, Germany
191. Heuckmann Helena, independent citizen, Germany
192. Hkiri Roua, Master’s student in Contemporary History, Project Coordinator at the Federation of Tunisians for Citizenship of the Two Shores, Tunisia
193. Hubert Hanelore, independent citizen, Belgium
194. Idir Rachid, PST activist, Algeria
195. Jabary Omar, ULB, Belgium
196. Jamar Astrid, Senior Postdoctoral Fellow, University of Antwerp, Belgium
197. Jebnoun Noureddine, Fellow, Center for Contemporary Arab Studies, Walsh School of Foreign Service, Georgetown University, Washington D.C., USA
198. Jemaa Ahmed, researcher and independent activist, Tunisia
199. Jendoubi Kamel, Honorary President, EuroMed rights, Tunisia/France
200. Jinkang Alagie, Dr., University of Bologna, Italy
201. Jla Emna, independent Tunisian citizen, Tunisia
202. Jones Chris, Statewatch, UK
203. Josa Balint, Director, UNITED for Intercultural Action, Hungary
204. Jouili Jeanette, Syracuse University, USA
205. Jungfer Eberhard, Dr., Migration-Control.Info Project, Germany
206. Kaba Mahmoud, student-researcher, Central University of Tunis, Guinea
207. Kacha Yasmine, human rights researcher, Algeria
208. Kadano Hassan, Aman Against Discrimination AAD, Libya
209. Kalir Barak, University of Amsterdam, Netherlands
210. Karvala David, author, anti-racist activist and member of, Spain
211. Kassou Mehdi, Managing Director, Belrefugees, Belgium
212. Kfoury Assaf, Professor of Computer Science, Boston University, USA
213. Khalil Nour, consultant and researcher on migration and border policies, Egypt
214. Khelifa Samiha, La Manouba University, Tunisia
215. Khenissi Mohamed, civil society activist, Tunisia
216. King Stephen, Professor of Government, Georgetown University, USA
217. Klaus Enrique, Lecturer, University Côte d’Azur, France
218. Kleinschmidt Malte, Dr., Research Assistant, Leibniz University, Hannover, Germany
219. Kniss Ali, activist and researcher, Tunisia
220. Kola Ermira, social worker, Italy
221. Komer Monica, PhD Candidate, University of Wisconsin, USA
222. Kouri Mousa, Aman Against Discrimination, Libya
223. Kwongang Christian, AESAT-Association of African Students and Interns in Tunisia, Tunisia
224. Laakkonen Ville, PhD student, University of Tampere, Finland
225. Labbize Souad, author, translator, France
226. Lachenal Perrine, CNRS, France
227. Lafratta Daniela, lawyer, ASGI, Italy
228. Lahmar Nadège, human rights researcher, France/Tunisia
229. Langlois Thomas, Lest, France
230. Latif Chokri, President, Organization Against Torture in Tunisia, Tunisia
231. Latiri Chiraz, teacher-researcher, La Manouba University, Tunisia
232. Le Pape Loïc, MCF, University of Paris 1, Panthéon-Sorbonne, France
233. Leclerc-Olive Michèle, retired researcher, CNRS, France
234. Leclercq Philippe, LDH Secretary Saint-Dié-des-Vosges, France
235. Limam M’hamed, doctor, dentist, Tunisia
236. Loschi Chiara, Postdoc Researcher, University of Bologna, Italy
237. Louis-Puttick Tigs, Director, Reclaim The Sea, UK
238. Luceno Moreno Marta, Associate Researcher, Gender&Feminist Lab, University of Liège, Tunisia/Belgium/Spain
239. M. Sara, researcher and human rights defender, Egypt
240. M. Dinanga Asher, Commercial Director, Democratic Republic of Congo
241. Mabrouk Sihem, lawyer, Tunisia
242. Machta Insaf, academic, film critic and President of the Sentiers-Massarib Association, Tunisia
243. Maestri Andrea, human rights lawyer, Italy,
244. Magugliani Noemi, Lecturer in Law, Kent Law School, de:border//migration justice collective, UK
245. Mahazi Jasmin, Dr., Leibniz-Zentrum, Moderner Orient, Germany
246. Maitte Corine, Professor of modern history, President of the French Association for Labour History, France
247. Majed Ziad, political scientist, university professor, American University of Paris, France
248. Mancini Patrizia, activist and blogger, Tunisia
249. Mani Souad, assistant, University of Sousse, visual artist and President of the Delta Association, Tunisia
250. Mann Carol, Research Associate, University of Paris 8, France
251. Mardam Bey Farouk, publisher, France
252. Marjane Faycal, HR Manager, Poland
253. Matri Khaoula, Faculty of Letters and Human Sciences of Sousse, Tunisia
254. Mazzara Federica, Senior Researcher in Cultural Studies, University of Westminster, UK
255. Mbolela Emmanuel, ARCOM-Association of Refugee and Migrant Communities in Morocco, Morocco
256. Mehdi Oumayma, Legal Agenda-Tunisia, Tunisia
257. Meister Maler, Climate Action Points, Germany
258. Mejdi Ihsan, University of Exeter, Tunisia
259. Melliti Imed, Professor of Sociology at the University of Tunis El Manar, Tunisia
260. Messaoudi Aziz, Transparency Morocco, Morocco
261. Mezzadra Sandro, University of Bologna, Italy
262. Mietton Michel, Emeritus Professor, University of Lyon, France
263. Mimouni Jamal, Professor, University of Constantine 1, Constantine, Algeria
264. Minawi Mostafa, Associate Professor, Cornell University, USA
265. Mirto Giorgia, PhD student, Department of Anthropology, Columbia University, Italy
266. Mohsen-Finan Khadija, university teacher and researcher, France
267. Montana Ismael, Northern Illinois University, USA
268. Montpetit Mathilde, Master’s student, New York University, United States
269. Mora Mariana, Associate Professor and researcher, CIESAS, Mexico
270. Mora-Kpai Idrissou, Ithaca College, USA
271. Morgan Scott, Red Eagle Enterprises, USA
272. Morreale Laura, PhD student, University of Perugia, Italy
273. Mostafa Basma, journalist, Germany
274. Mrad Dali Inès, researcher, Tunisia
275. Munro Beth, Organization, Tunisia
276. Musallam Fuad, Research Fellow, London School of Economics LSE, UK
277. Mustafa Ahmed, Libya Crimes Watch, Libya
278. Mzioudet Huda, University of Toronto, Canada
279. Naceur Sofian Philip, journalist, Tunisia
280. Naïli Falestin, historian, France
281. Nakhli Zahra, ATFD-Tunisian Association of Democratic Women, Sousse, Tunisia
282. Nasser Noura, PhD student in sociology, London School of Economics LSE, UK/Lebanon
283. Niang Mamadou, Head of Migration Service, CGTM-General Confederation of Mauritanian Workers, Mauritania
284. Njah Firas, researcher in migration studies, human rights activist, Tunisia
285. Noret Joël, Professor, Free University of Brussels, Belgium
286. Novaire Rashid, author, Ambo-Anthos, The Netherlands
287. Odasso Laura, Temporary Lecturer, Paris Cité URMIS University, ICM, Collège de France, France
288. Omar Fatma, El-Tahalof for Legal Aid Organization, Libya
289. Omran Mohamed, Support Center for Democratic Transition and Human Rights DAAM, Egypt/Tunisia
290. Oualdi M’hamed, Professor, Sciences Po, France
291. Özgür Ergün, Dr., Free University of Berlin, Germany
292. Ozkan Selim, Arizona State University and Yildiz Technical University, Türkiye
293. Pagano Chiara, University of Graz, Italy
294. Pagnoulle Christine, University of Liège, Belgium
295. Paillet Arthur, student, Paris-Dauphine-EHESS University, France
296. Parikh Shreya, Sciences Po Paris and UNC-Chapel Hill, France/India
297. Parker Christopher, University of Ghent, Belgium
298. Pasquero Alberto, lawyer, Italy
299. Paveau Marie-Anne, Professor, Sorbonne University Paris Nord, France
300. Perarnaud Clément, VUB, Belgium
301. Perl Gerhild, Adjunct Professor, University of Trier, Germany
302. Perrin Delphine, researcher at the IRD, France
303. Pezzani Lorenzo, Associate Professor, University of Bologna, Italy
304. Pfister Mariette, Sorbonne Nouvelle University, Paris, France
305. Pianoforte Donato, lawyer, Italy
306. Plaschke Jakob, journalist and researcher, Tunisia/Denmark
307. Pliez Olivier, research director, CNRS, France
308. Pluta Audrey, IREMAM, France
309. Pouessel Stéphanie, researcher and activist, Tunisia
310. Prescod-Weinstein Chanda, Associate Professor, University of New Hampshire, USA
311. Prochasson Dominique, Retired Associate Professor, Paris Cité University, France
312. Proserpio Anna, lawyer, Italy
313. Rabier Christelle, EHESS, France
314. Rahmoune Aissa, FIDH-International Federation for Human Rights, Algeria
315. Raiss-Tousi Ali, Birkbeck University of London, UK
316. Ramello Luca, OnBorders, Italy
317. Rasberry Vaughn, Associate Professor of English, Stanford University, USA
318. Ray Carina, Associate Professor, University of Michigan, USA
319. Redissi Hamadi, Professor, University of Tunis, Tunisia
320. Rees Peter, Goldsmiths College, University of London, UK
321. Rivetti Paola, University of Dublin, Ireland
322. Ross Eric, Al Akhawayn University, Ifrane, Morocco
323. Rouatbi Ahlem, human rights activist, France
324. Rouland Betty, Convergence Migration Institute, France
325. Saba Rasha, Head of Middle East and North Africa Programs, UK
326. Said Salam, researcher, Germany
327. Said Abdallah, association president, Tunisia
328. Salama Karim, human rights activist, Libya
329. Salehi Mariam, researcher, Free University of Berlin, Germany
330. Salomon Stefan, University of Amsterdam, Netherlands
331. Santorso Simone, Lecturer, University of Sussex, UK
332. Sarsam Emily, independent, Tunisia
333. Savvides Leandros, KISA-Equality, support, anti-racism, Cyprus
334. Scaglioni Marta, Postdoctoral Researcher, Cà Foscari University, Venice, Italy
335. Scherr Albert, Professor, University of Education, Freiburg, Germany
336. Schiavone Benedetta, social worker, Italy
337. Schiller Moya, Seebrucke, Germany
338. Seikaly Sherene, UCSB, USA
339. Serekberhan Mahder, PhD student, Syracuse University, USA
340. Shannon Jonathan, Professor, New York University, USA
341. Sieder Rachel, CIESAS, Mexico City, Mexico
342. Snijders Arthemis, University of Ghent, Belgium
343. Sossi Federica, University of Bergamo, Italy
344. Soua Lokman, Flahm, Tunisia
345. Speiser Claire, engineer, France
346. Sprumont Manon, independent citizen, Belgium
347. Stege Ulrich, Lawyer/Faculty Member, International University College of Turin IUC, Italy
348. Stierl Maurice, Dr., University of Osnabrück, Germany
349. Stoiber Andreas, University of Amsterdam, Netherlands
350. Streiff-Fénart Jocelyne, Emeritus Research Director, CNRS, France
351. Suber David, PhD Candidate, University College London UCL, Italy/UK
352. Tabbabi Khaled, Researcher in Sociology, Faculty of Human and Social Sciences of Tunis, Tunisia
353. Talbi Alaa, historian, researcher, Tunisia
354. Tebai Ikram, Master’s student in Migration Studies, Higher Institute of Human Sciences of Tunis, Tunisia
355. Thibault Adrien, Postdoctoral researcher in political science, University of Strasbourg/IRMC Tunis, France
356. Thiry Alexis, Legal Advisor, MENA Rights Group, Switzerland
357. Tlili Jalel, academic, Tunis El Manar University, Tunisia
358. Touati Merzoug, journalist, Algeria
359. Truddaiu Julien, citizen in solidarity, Belgium
360. Turner Lewis, Lecturer in International Politics, University of Newcastle, UK
361. Van Hecken Gert, Associate Professor, University of Antwerp, Belgium
362. Van Outryve Sixtine, doctoral student in law, UC Louvain, Belgium
363. Verdeil Eric, Professor, Sciences Po Paris, France
364. Vicari Giulia, human rights lawyer, ASGI, Italy
365. Wagner Izabela, Professor of sociology, University of Paris-Ville, URMIS, France
366. Wahli Khaled, Aman Against Discrimination, Libya
367. Wenger Carole, University of Liège, Belgium
368. Weslaty Lilia, Adala For All, France
369. Yacoubi Souad, activist, Amnesty International, Tunisia
370. Yambio David, Refugees in Libya, Libya/Tunisia
371. Yotedje Franck, Executive Director, Afrique Intelligence, Tunisia
372. Zagaria Valentina, anthropologist, University of Manchester, Tunisia/UK
373. Zagaria Cecilia, Postdoctoral Researcher, Wageningen University, The Netherlands
374. Zalila Ikbal, La Manouba University, Tunis, Tunisia
375. Zammouri Najet, Professor, first Vice-President of the LTDH-Tunisian League for Human Rights, Tunisia
376. Zemni Sami, Professor, University of Ghent, Department of Conflict and Development Studies, Belgium
377. Znaien Nessim, Junior Professor, University of Marburg, Germany
378. Zorzella Nazzarena, lawyer, ASGI, Italy
379. Zribi Hamadi, activist, Tunisia